For those to whom the details of history are of little interest, here is a simple outline of the story of the family as an over-view of what is covered in detail in the first three volumes and their chapters.
This is a swift overview, skimming complexities yet offering a perspective into which to set the details offered by the chapters. While these are ehaded by successive names, the chapters are titled by differing issues.
To avoid complexity, this holds simply to the main male line descent since records mostly survive with information about them.
Most wives and daughters are detailed in the chapters with all information found to date. But although ladies were respected more in Scotland than elsewhere – keeping their maiden names on their tombstones or when they wished, there is far less information to be found on them than on male heads of families in the period covered. The one early 18th century exception is Lillias Inverawe and she is given a whole chapter near the end of volume I.
For those who gnash their teeth over ‘elitism’ and would have us all wear the grey of Mao, I would explain why I have chosen to number those who were granted or inherited the responsibility for communities on their lands at Inverawe. When a family alternates Archibald and Dougall for first or Christian names from 1470 to 1705, that can be confusing as to which you are discussing. Numbering them is no attempt to elevate their status, it is merely to avoid confusion.
Duncan Sceodnasach Campbell
This family appear to be descended from Duncan Sceodnasach – meaning a man from Ard-sceodnish, now Kilmartin – who was brother of Sir Colin Ioncantach (‘wonderful’) Campbell of Lochawe (1336-1412). Inverawe came to Colin, 1st Earl of Argyll, as part of the Lordship of Lorne granted to him by James King of Scots in 1470. This grant due to the inability of Sir Walter Stewart, Lord of Lone to bring peace to the area and the King’s trust of Colin..
Lerags – Inverawe – Stronchormaig (Glenfeochan)The Clan Connochie Campbells
For the pacification of Lorne in the years following 1470, the Earl placed three of his sturdy MacConnochies cousins at Lerags, Stronchormaig [Glenfeochan] and at Inverawe, first in the latter cases as tenants and later granted the lands. Lerags had the Lerags Cross made in thankfulness for surviving Flodden. He was later put in charge of the island castle in Loch Nell. Strochormaig’s descendant owned Knipoch and was with Sir John Campbell of Cawdor when he was shot through the window with a hagbut. Some of them and of the Inverawe kindred survive in Argyll. In the 17th century report, the word used for sturdy was ‘stout’ but it did not mean portly.
Archibald MacConnoche Campbell 1st of Inverawe and his son Dougall 2nd of Inverawe
While the Island castle of Fraoch Eilean on upper Loch Awe may well have been granted to the MacConnochies (from MacDonnachaidh – ‘sons of Duncan’) earlier, Inverawe was granted to Archibald MacConnochie Campbell by Earl Colin shortly after 1470. Other than Duncan being a witness at Ardsceodnish as a young man, the earliest documentary evidence surviving about this family is of 1485 when Archibald’s son Dougall is on record.
Archibald MacConnoshie Campbell 3rd of Inverawe
Dougall’s son Archibald is on record in 1493 and survived the Battle of Flodden as a young man in 1513. In 1539-40 he was called to the imposing Castle Campbell above Dollar by the Earl of Argyll, who found Archibald had usurped his power by granting some lands to a kinsman in his own right. A settlement was reached but, should he tread on the Earl’s toes again, he was to put himself voluntarily into the castle of Dunstaffnage until released. In old age he became annoyed with the Earl’s Writer MacArthur whom he attacked in a fight on Loch Awe. The incident became known as “the drowning of clan Arthur” and Inverawe lost his post as Baillie – in effect justiciar – of Over (Upper) Loch Awe. MacArthur had, Inverawe believed, failed to point out that the lands of Innestrynich belonged to Inverawe and had allowed the 5th Earl of assume they were his own, and grant them to MacArthur. Archibald was a feisty warrior who signed a letter in 1568, “Yours assured to power.”
Dougall MacConnochie Campbell 4th of Inverawe
His son Dougall had his castle of Fraoch Eilean burnt in his absence by a renegade MacLean who hung his wife and children at the gate, including his heir Alan. Dougall then visited his sister Margaret at Carnassarie Castle where she was second wife of the builder of that palatial pile, Bishop of the Isles John Carswell (d. 1572). This Dougall (4th of Inverawe), found there the Bishop’s daughter by his first marriage; Christian, and married her. A son was born and named Archibald but Dougall died shortly afterwards in 1582-83. When a man responsible for many communities died and his heir was a minor, his senior uncle would be guardian of the people and lands. In this case the ‘Tutor’ who was appointed was Dougall’s half brother John Dubh MacConnochie Campbell, Tutor of Inverawe.
John [or Iain] Dubh MacConnnochie Tutor of Inverawe
John Dubh had been a fighter like his father Archibald of Inverawe. He first turns up raiding MacLeans on Islay along with some MacDonalds. He did well and became a leader of The Islemen, sailing their galleys to Ireland to fight for the Earl of Tyrone against Elizabeth of England’s forces. When John returned to Inverawe the widow Christian left for her brother at Carnassarie. But John took the infant heir Archibald and placed him with foster-parents, as was the custom to create alliances. But he chose a local couple at Bunaw where he could keep an eye on the boy, since if the infant died, John would inherit the responsibility for the communities on Inverawe lands and so followers and power. But the foster mother, Mrs. MacPherson – a Campbell line of sons of the parson – sensed John’s threat. One night she crossed the hills with the infant in a bundle and took him to his mother where he was well defended at Carnassarie. Christian, the lady Inverawe, later married Neill Campbell, parson of Kilmartin. What seems likely is that he built the manor-house or castle there for them to live in. Neill became a bishop himself, as did one of their sons.
John Dubh as ‘Wicked Uncle’ to Archibald MacConnoche Campbell 5th of Inverawe
John appears in the correspondence of Lord Burleigh and his son Cecil with Bowes, English ambassador to the Court of James V, King of Scots. They attempted to get him to go back to Ireland and lead his colleagues the Islemen into an ambush, but mercifully he would not, if tempted. Meanwhile John Dubh carried on as lord of Inverawe and continued in a wild way. He stole a man’s wife from Loch Tay and was fined for having a victim’s man’s head carried before him on a pike. When young Archibald turned 21 in 1603, John Dubh invited him to a hunt at Inverawe, culling driven dear with spear or arrow. Knowing John’s reputation Archie was accompanied by a sturdy servant. The hunt went off without incident, but while the table in the hall was being set for dinner, the dogs fought and the heavy cloth was pulled aside, the servant saw a flat dag exposed by the uncle John’s place. He found Archie and told him they must leave immediately. Riding across the River Awe at the Ford of the Hooves, they climbed the ridge between Awe and Nant. Finding them gone, John Dubh was enraged and was about to overtake them when his servant said to Archie, “If you do not kill him, he will kill you!” So the lad put an arrow to his bow and shot his uncle [John MacFarlane says through the eye]. Alastair Campbell of Airds and I found a small cairn of stones on the ridge top called MacConnochie’s Cairn, likely where John was killed and buried. The bravest act of Archibald’s was in returning to Inverawe to face John’s widow and grown sons with the news. Mercifully John’s brother Patrick sided with his nephew and Archibald took over as his father’s heir. He later built the tower house in the ruins of Fraoch Eilean.
Lt. Col. Dougall MacConnochie Campbell 6th of Inverawe – ‘Argyll’s Champion’ (d. 1665)
The next son and heir was yet another Dougall who was to become called by Montrose “Argyll’s Champion” and after his service in chasing Alastair MacColla out of Argyll, storming Gylen Castle and, being made Governor of Inverlochy, was appointed as Lt. Col. Dougall MacConnochie Campbell, of Inverawe. He died in 1665 and his tomb stone at Ardchattan calls him “of undoubted fame.” He served in the dark Civil War on the fundamentalist Covenanting side and slaughtered some Lamonts in revenge for their Chief turning his coat after the Battle of Inverlochy and making possible MacColla’s return to Argyll. He narrowly avoided having his responsibilities and lands taken away after the Restoration.
Archibald MacConnochie Campbell 7th of Inverawe – Governor of Duart (d. 1705)
His son Archibald balanced for a time on the fence between the Crown and the Jacobite side. He was made Argyll’s Governor of Duart Castle which had come from the MacLeans due to debts, carefully enlarged by the Marquess of Argyll. He died childless.
Archibald MacConnochie Campbell 8th of Inverawe – the borrower (d. 1740)
His heir was the son of his bother Duncan of Crunachy in the Pass of Brander – another Archibald. In 1705 he inherited the responsibilities and scattered lands of Inverawe. But he appears to have had some disability as he was always borrowing funds against his lands. But he had married Janet, daughter of MacLean of Torloisk, so mellowing that inter family relationship, and she bore him many children. After his time, the patronymic MacConnochie became seldom used.
Duncan 9th of Inverawe (1702-58) – 2nd in Command of The Black Watch
The eldest was Duncan, (named after his grandfather), born in 1702. He appears to have worked for a time in Edinburgh and aged 22 was commissioned in the new Independent Companies, under Capt. Campbell of Carrick. When the Companies were amalgamated to form the Black Watch in 1739, he resigned and continued into the cattle business. He married at Castle Weem Jean, a daughter of Campbell of Finab and his wife, the widow of Lord Neill Campbell. His father died in 1740 and he inherited as Inverawe. In 1744 he drove a herd of 600 head south to Lincolnshire, by-passing the English dealers at the tryst of Crieff. he made a fair sum and had the surviving oldest part of Inverawe House built. Their eldest two sons, Dougall and Alexander, both completed Glasgow University where signs of the Enlightenment were already alive. In 1744-5 Duncan was commissioned into the Black Watch as Captain and raised a Company of men. At first he was shuttled about and survived his failure to arrest the Jacobite Duke of Perth. During the march from Edinburgh to Aberdeen in 1745 he acted as 2nd in command of the Argyll Militia force under Col. ‘Jack’ Campbell, later 5th Duke of Argyll. Duncan and his men guarded the baggage during the Battle of Culloden, searched for the wandering Prince Charles Edward and brought captured arms back to Inveraray. In 1751 he joined the regiment in Ireland and was there appointed 2nd in command and returned to Scotland to recruit. He, with several young officers, sergeants, pipers and drummers, raised 600 men (the size of a Battalion) for the Black Watch and commanded their review on Glasgow Green in 1757. They then marched for Greenock and embarked for North America. In 1758 at the Seige of Ticonderoga he was mortally wounded and died 9 days later. His tombstone survives.
Alexander ‘Sandy’ Campbell 10th of Inverawe (1739-1760)
Son Dougall had died while serving in the Scots Fusiliers in Gibralter and the next son Alexander ‘Sandy’ Campbell became of Inverawe. But he too had been wounded in the arm at Ticonderoga. Because the French Canadians had run out of lead bullets and were using rusty nails and broken glass in their muskets, few survived these would long. Sandy died in 1760 aged 21 while an officer in the Glasgow City Guard. He was buried in the grave-yard of Glasgow University where his sister Jesse had a plaque erected for him. All was destroyed when, in the 19th century, in a fervour of ‘progress’ the old university and grave-yard were destroyed to install a railway marshalling yard. At least the University Gateway he would have known stands re-erected at the Victorian university building on the hill above the Kelvingrove Museum.
Janet ‘Jesse’ of Inverawe for her brother Duncan, a minor who died young.
Due to the debts on Inverawe, the responsibilities for people and lands passed to Duncan’s daughter Jesse, rather than to a brother as it would in the days when it was important to have a male heir to lead in defence. Jesse had married young but none of her children married. Inverawe took 5 years to sell due to complications with one of the MacDonalds of Dalness, earlier old friends of the family who likely had fostered Duncan. They had a lease-to-buy called a Wadset of Dalness from Inverawe. Complexities tended to occur in Highland families when using Edinburgh lawyers, rather than those from Glasgow who had a better understanding of Highland culture.
The head of the Inverawe kindred now came to Duncan the 9th’s next surviving brother Alexander, Provost of Renfrew, a former ship’s captain and partner with the Somervilles at Renfrew. Ultimately he was Director of H.M. Customs at Greenock. Portraits of him and his Somerville wife are still in the hands of the family. He died in 1770 and two of his sons survived; Archibald and Duncan. Daughters Anne and Jane Isabella would be housekeepers for Archibald and play a part in the drama of his heritage. Daughter Jean married a Campbell in Achlian and their offspring spread across the globe from Carolina to India and New Zealand, leaving no as yet identified descendants.
Lt. Col. Archibald Campbell 12th of Inverawe (1753 – 1825)
Archibald was 17 when his father died and was already indentured with a Glasgow overseas trader involved in the tobacco trade, then evolving into the sugar trade. He returned to base near Greenock and won the life-rent of the lands and great house of Finlaystone at cards from Graham of Gartmore while at their dining club of The Board of the Green Cloth. He was Lt. Col. of the Greenock Volunteer Militia during the Napoleonic Wars. In his Will or Testament he was most generous to many of the family. When his sister Anne died in 1812, his friend Captain John Fish offered his niece Catherine as possible housekeeper. She had helped bring up his now married daughters after their mother died. So Catherine came to Finlaystone and they became close and she had a son Alexander whom Archibald treated as his heir, expecting his trustees to buy back Inverawe for him. However when Archibald died Catherine had already died, and no paper proof of their marriage could be found. Although the trustees knew about their being married in a private ceremony at Finlaystone, it evidently never occurred to the Edinburgh lawyer who was consulted to suggest interviewing witnesses among the household. So he, one Cunningham, later a Law Lord, advised the trustees that Alexander’s cousin James must be made heir male. This of course inferred that Alexander was illegitimate, although he would inherit the fortune after legacies. The trustees tried to obtain Inverawe for him but ended up selling that part of Inverawe which Archibald had bought back – Tirvine and Ardnaiseig – to Alexander’s cousin James. Through the misadventure of one of the trustees, Alexander ended up with the estate of Auchendarroch between Lochgilphead and Ardrishaig in Argyll, but with little capital.
When Archibald died in 1825 at Finlaystone, his brother Duncan, who had been a West Indies Planter, had also died in London leaving a large family of orphan children in the care of Trustees. The eldest heir male of these was now 18, James Archibald Campbell.
Over 40 years later, in 1871, Jane Isabella, Archibald 12th of Inverawe’s niece who had become his housekeeper when Catherine was ill and had been present at the marriage at Finlaystone, saw the end of her life approaching and recorded a witnessed affidavit describing the wedding. She had seemingly been instructed by the trustees that should she mention the marriage of Archibald and Catherine she might lose her generous annuity since it might invalidate the will. Now, facing her maker, as she saw it, she gave evidence which brought Alexander of Auchendarroch to allow surviving associates of the household at Finlaystone to be interviewed and to make recorded statements.
And so the family were split, until in 1908, Alexander’s grandson took the proofs of the marriage to a senior judge in the Judiciary of Scotland, the Lord Lyon King at Arms, who found the proofs adequate to grant the un-differenced arms of Inverawe to Alastair M. Campbell of Auchedarroch. Unfortunately nobody informed the descendants of James Archibald – who became addressed as “of Inverawe” quite understandably, and both descents of the family were too polite to discuss the matter very openly.
When Alastair Campbell of Airds, whose mother was an Inverawe of the Auchendarroch descent, was writing his three volume remarkable A History of Clan Campbell he was approached a number of times by a descendant of James Archibald Campbell 13th of Inverawe to write a full description of how, although Archibald 12th of Inverawe had a son Alexander – later of Auchendarroch – yet it was that the trustees of Archibald were obliged to take James to court to have him “enter heir” and so be known as [13th] of Inverawe.
Alastair asked me to research and write up the subject. After much work in transcribing the surviving papers I sent him a copy and he told me to forward it so R. Campbell who had provoked it. This, since refined, is teh chapter on Lt. Col. Alexander Cambvpell of Auchendarroch.
For a long time I heard no word back, and then that he had tried a number of times to write to me. He wanted to know where the original papers were. So that anyone else could research the same documents they are now being digitised at The Old Register House in Edinburgh – what used to be known as The Scottish Records Office – then The National Archives of Scotland and now – but hopefully the “new brooms” will no longer be allowed to change the names of important institutions for political reasons.
Due to the complexities of the family in the 19th and early 20th century – ever expanding in some areas – I will end the overview of the family here. Those interested can read the relevant chapters in volume III.